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Nginx 实践案例(源码编译安装方式):利用LNMP搭建wordpress站点

收藏 2022-04-01 15:00:01   132   博客园
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镜像下载、域名解析、时间同步请点击 阿里云开源镜像站

​LNMP是Linux + Nginx + MySQL + PHP 四个系统的首字母缩写,相对于 LAMP(Linux + Apache + MySQL + PHP )来说的。曾经在虚拟主机建站界风靡一时,随着新的编程语言和容器技术、微服务等发展,慢慢没落了,尤其是PHP编程语言的使用量急剧下降了。​

​ WordPress是一款能让您建立出色网站、博客或应用程序的开源软件。它具有美观的设计,强大的功能,可以助您自由发挥心中所想。WordPress既是免费的,也是无价的​。

# 本实践过程中的系统及环境描述
L:Linux     https://mirrors.aliyun.com/centos/
N:Nginx     https://nginx.org/en/download.html
M:MySQL     https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/
P:PHP       http://php.net/downloads.php
Wordpress    https://cn.wordpress.org/latest-zh_CN.tar.gz
#部署规划:
192.168.250.47:Nginx php-fpm 运行web服务
192.168.250.48:运行MySQL数据库,Redis服务

1. 架构拓扑及主机说明

file

# 三台主机
1  1台  Linux+Nginx+PHP+WordPress (简称 LNP) 服务器 :
主机名:LNP-Server-IP47
CentOS 7.9
IP:192.168.250.47


2  1台 MySQL+Redis 服务器 :
主机名: MySQL-Redis-IP48
CentOS 8.4
IP:192.168.250.48/24

3  1台 client主机 :
WIN10-PC机

2. 准备 MySQL 数据库

# CentOS系统的优化,可以查以前的文章;按照架构图修改好主机名
[root@CentOS84-IP48 ]#hostnamectl set-hostname MySQL-Redis-IP48
[root@CentOS84-IP48 ]#exit

# yum 安装 mysql-server 数据库
[root@MySQL-Redis-IP48 ]#yum info mysql-server
Last metadata expiration check: 19:31:21 ago on Mon 28 Mar 2022 02:34:38 AM CST.
Available Packages
Name         : mysql-server
Version      : 8.0.26
[root@MySQL-Redis-IP48 ]#yum -y install mysql-server

# 启动服务并开启自启
[root@MySQL-Redis-IP48 ]#systemctl enable --now mysqld

# 进入数据库
[root@MySQL-Redis-IP48 ]#mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 8
Server version: 8.0.26 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.
# 创建 wordpress 库
mysql> create database wordpress;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
# 创建wordpress的数据库账户名和密码
mysql> create user wordpress@'192.168.250.%' identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
# 数据库授权
mysql> grant all on wordpress.* to wordpress@'192.168.250.%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
# 本机登录并验证数据库
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
| wordpress          |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> use wordpress
Database changed
mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

mysql> quit
Bye
[root@MySQL-Redis-IP48 ]#

3. 网络验证MySQL服务

# 通过网络在另外一台机器上登录上面建好的数据库服务器
# 安装数据库客户端 mysql 包
[root@CentOS84-IP172-48 ]#yum -y install mysql

# 网络方式登录远程数据库
[root@CentOS84-IP172-48 ]#mysql -uwordpress -p123456 -h192.168.250.48
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 9
Server version: 8.0.26 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| wordpress          |
+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

4. 配置 LNP 服务器

​基本任务: 编译安装和部署 php 支持 redis,并准备配置和启动服务文件,启动 php-fpm; 编译安装Nginx ,并准备配置和启动服务文件,启动Nginx​

4.1 部署php-fpm服务

# 按照架构图修改好主机名
[root@centos79 ]# hostnamectl set-hostname LNP-Server-IP47
[root@centos79 ]# exit

# 安装编译PHP需要的依赖包
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# yum -y install gcc openssl-devel libxml2-devel bzip2-devel libmcrypt-devel sqlite-devel oniguruma-devel

# 下载 php-7.4.28.tar.xz 源码包
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# wget https://www.php.net/distributions/php-7.4.28.tar.xz
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# ll -h php-7.4.28.tar.xz 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10M Feb 15 21:40 php-7.4.28.tar.xz

# 解压源码包,进入源码包所在目录
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# tar xf php-7.4.28.tar.xz 
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# ll
total 11220
drwxr-xr-x  9 1001 1001      186 Mar 28 17:06 nginx-1.20.2
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  1062124 Nov 16 22:51 nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
drwxrwxr-x 16 root root     4096 Feb 15 21:23 php-7.4.28
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 10418352 Feb 15 21:40 php-7.4.28.tar.xz

# 准备编译参数
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]#cd  php-7.4.28/
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-7.4.28]# ./configure --prefix=/apps/php74 --enable-mysqlnd --with-mysqli=mysqlnd --with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd --with-openssl --with-zlib --with-config-file-path=/etc --with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d --enable-mbstring --enable-xml --enable-sockets --enable-fpm -enable-maintainer-zts --disable-fileinfo
....................................
Thank you for using PHP.    # 需要看到这个信息才算成功了

# 查看cpu个数,作为编译参数CPU选项输入
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# lscpu
Architecture:          x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:            Little Endian
CPU(s):                8
On-line CPU(s) list:   0-7
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-7.4.28]# 

# 编译安装
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-7.4.28]# make -j 8 && make install

...................  #此处删除很多屏显内容,需要看到下面成功信息再进入下一步
Build complete.
Don't forget to run 'make test'.

Installing shared extensions:     /apps/php74/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20190902/
Installing PHP CLI binary:        /apps/php74/bin/
Installing PHP CLI man page:      /apps/php74/php/man/man1/
Installing PHP FPM binary:        /apps/php74/sbin/
Installing PHP FPM defconfig:     /apps/php74/etc/
Installing PHP FPM man page:      /apps/php74/php/man/man8/
Installing PHP FPM status page:   /apps/php74/php/php/fpm/
Installing phpdbg binary:         /apps/php74/bin/
Installing phpdbg man page:       /apps/php74/php/man/man1/
Installing PHP CGI binary:        /apps/php74/bin/
Installing PHP CGI man page:      /apps/php74/php/man/man1/
Installing build environment:     /apps/php74/lib/php/build/
Installing header files:          /apps/php74/include/php/
Installing helper programs:       /apps/php74/bin/
  program: phpize
  program: php-config
Installing man pages:             /apps/php74/php/man/man1/
  page: phpize.1
  page: php-config.1
/usr/local/src/php-7.4.28/build/shtool install -c ext/phar/phar.phar /apps/php74/bin/phar.phar
ln -s -f phar.phar /apps/php74/bin/phar
Installing PDO headers:           /apps/php74/include/php/ext/pdo/

##############################################################################
## 准备 php 配置文件
# 从配置文件模板复制,并进行修改
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-7.4.28]# cp /usr/local/src/php-7.4.28/php.ini-production /etc/php.ini

# 进入当时编译参数内定义的目录 /apps/php74/    从模板复制创建 php-fpm.conf
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-7.4.28]# cd /apps/php74/etc
[root@lnp-server-ip47 etc]# cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf

# 进入子配置文件目录,从模板 文件创建 www.conf  
[root@lnp-server-ip47 etc]# cd php-fpm.d/

[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# cp www.conf.default www.conf   
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# 

# 按照本实践的思路修改 www.conf
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# vim www.conf
;user = nobody
user = www

;group = nobody
group = www

;pm.status_path = /status
pm.status_path = /status

;ping.path = /ping
ping.path = /ping

;access.log = log/$pool.access.log
access.log = log/$pool.access.log 

;slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow
slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow 

# 修改后的 www.conf 文件去除 ; 注释行的所有文件内容 供比对
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# grep '^[^;]' www.conf
[www]
user = www
group = www
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
pm = dynamic
pm.max_children = 5
pm.start_servers = 2
pm.min_spare_servers = 1
pm.max_spare_servers = 3
pm.status_path = /status
ping.path = /ping
access.log = log/$pool.access.log
slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow  
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# 

# 创建 www 用户
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# useradd -r -s /sbin/nologin www
# 创建访问日志文件路径
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# mkdir /apps/php74/log
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# 

##############################################################################
## 启动并验证 php-fpm 服务
# 检查配置文件语法等
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# /apps/php74/sbin/php-fpm -t
[28-Mar-2022 18:05:51] NOTICE: configuration file /apps/php74/etc/php-fpm.conf test is successful
# 准备启动服务文件
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# cp /usr/local/src/php-7.4.28/sapi/fpm/php-fpm.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/

# 启动并开机自启动 php-fpm
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# systemctl enable --now php-fpm
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/php-fpm.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/php-fpm.service.
# 验证监听端口
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# ss -ltn
State       Recv-Q Send-Q   Local Address:Port         Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN      0      511      127.0.0.1:9000             *:*                  
              
# 查看并跟踪 进程信息
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# pstree -p |grep php
           |-php-fpm(20700)-+-php-fpm(20701)
           |                `-php-fpm(20702)
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# ps -ef |grep php
root     20700     1  0 18:06 ?        00:00:00 php-fpm: master process (/apps/php74/etc/php-fpm.conf)
www      20701 20700  0 18:06 ?        00:00:00 php-fpm: pool www
www      20702 20700  0 18:06 ?        00:00:00 php-fpm: pool www
root     20707  5036  0 18:07 pts/0    00:00:00 grep --color=auto php
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]#

4.2 部署 Nginx 服务

4.2.1 编译安装 nginx

#### 编译安装 nginx
# 准备Nginx编译安装的依赖包
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# yum -y install gcc pcre-devel openssl-devel zlib-devel
# 下载 nginx 1.20.2 源码包  一般/usr/local/src/  作为源码文件存放目录
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
# 解压源码包
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# tar xf nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# ll
total 1040
drwxr-xr-x 8 1001 1001     158 Nov 16 22:44 nginx-1.20.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1062124 Nov 16 22:51 nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# 

# 进入nginx-1.20.2 目录,准备编译参数
[root@lnp-server-ip47 src]# cd nginx-1.20.2
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# ./configure --prefix=/apps/nginx 
> --user=www 
> --group=www 
> --with-http_ssl_module 
> --with-http_v2_module 
> --with-http_realip_module 
> --with-http_stub_status_module 
> --with-http_gzip_static_module 
> --with-pcre 
> --with-stream 
> --with-stream_ssl_module 
> --with-stream_realip_module

[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# make -j 8 && make install

##############################################################################
# 准备服务文件并启动 nginx
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service
[Unit]
Description=nginx - high performance web server
Documentation=http://nginx.org/en/docs/
After=network-online.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/apps/nginx/run/nginx.pid
ExecStart=/apps/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
ExecStop=/bin/kill -s TERM $MAINPID

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]#

# 创建目录
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# mkdir /apps/nginx/run/

# 修改配置文件
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# vim /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
# 仅修改下面这行的内容
pid        /apps/nginx/run/nginx.pid; 

# 启动并开机自启服务
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# systemctl enable --now nginx
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# ss -tln
State       Recv-Q Send-Q    Local Address:Port         Peer Address:Port 
LISTEN      0      511       127.0.0.1:9000             *:*
LISTEN      0      511       *:80                       *:* 
             
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]#

4.2.2 配置 Nginx 支持 fastcgi

##############################################################################
#### 配置 Nginx 支持 fastcgi
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# vim /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
# 仅仅修改下面这些内容,其他都市默认值
worker_processes  auto;
pid        /apps/nginx/run/nginx.pid;
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  blog.shone.cn;
        location / {
        root /data/nginx/wordpress;
        index index.php index.html index.htm; 
        }

        location  .php$ {
            root /data/nginx/wordpress;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include fastcgi_params;
        }

        location  ^/(ping|pm_status)$ {
        include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_param PATH_TRANSLATED $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        }

# 通过命令筛选出有效的配置行
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]# grep -Ev '#|^$' /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
worker_processes  auto;
pid        /apps/nginx/run/nginx.pid;
events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    sendfile        on;
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  blog.shone.cn;    #指定域名
        location / {
        root /data/nginx/wordpress;    #指定数据目录
        index index.php index.html index.htm;    # 指定默认主页文件
        }
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }
        
        location  .php$ {                      #实现php-fpm
            root /data/nginx/wordpress;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include fastcgi_params;
        }
        location  ^/(ping|pm_status)$ {         #PHP检测状态页
        include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_param PATH_TRANSLATED $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        }
    }
}
[root@lnp-server-ip47 nginx-1.20.2]#

# 重新启动 nginx 让新配置文件生效
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# systemctl reload nginx
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# ss -ltn
State       Recv-Q Send-Q   Local Address:Port        Peer Address:Port 
LISTEN      0      511      127.0.0.1:9000             *:*  
LISTEN      0      511      *:80                       *:*  
    
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]#

4.2.3 测试PHP工作是否正常

准备测试页面

[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# mkdir -p /data/nginx/wordpress
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# vim /data/nginx/wordpress/phpinfo.php
[root@lnp-server-ip47 php-fpm.d]# cat /data/nginx/wordpress/phpinfo.php

测试PHP的ping

file

查看状态页

file

5. 部署 WordPress

5.1 准备 WordPress 文件

# 下载源文件,并复制到前面定义的网页目录下,并修改权属
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# wget https://cn.wordpress.org/latest-zh_CN.tar.gz
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# ll
total 19012
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 19462197 Mar 19 00:00 latest-zh_CN.tar.gz
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# tar xf latest-zh_CN.tar.gz                       
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# ll
total 19016
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 19462197 Mar 19 00:00 latest-zh_CN.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x  5 1006 1006     4096 Mar 19 00:00 wordpress
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# cp -r wordpress/* /data/nginx/wordpress
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ]# chown -R www.www /data/nginx/wordpress/
[root@lnp-server-ip47 ~]#

5.2 初始化 WordPress

# 修改WIN10的本地hosts文件,路径为  C:WindowsSystem32driversetchosts   在最后添加一行
192.168.250.47  blog.shone.cn

在浏览器内输入 blog.shone.cn  出现可道云的初始化向导,按照向导完成初始化

在浏览器内输入 http://blog.shone.cn

file

file

file

file

file

file

file

file

6. 优化 WordPress

6.1 允许上传大文件

#注意:默认只支持1M以下文件上传,要利用php程序上传大文件,需要修改下面的配置,最大上传由下列项值的最小值决定,直接上传大于1M文件,会出现下面413错误

[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# vim /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;
    client_max_body_size 100m;       #nginx上传文件大小修改成100M,默认1M 
    .........
        



[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# vim /etc/php.ini
; http://php.net/post-max-size
;post_max_size = 8M              # 默认值为8M
post_max_size = 30M

;upload_max_filesize = 2M        # 默认值为2M
upload_max_filesize = 20M 



[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# systemctl restart nginx php-fpm

6.2 安全加固

# 关闭版本显示
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# grep -Ev '#|^$' /apps/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
worker_processes  auto;
pid        /apps/nginx/run/nginx.pid;
events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    client_max_body_size 100m;
    sendfile        on;
    
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  blog.shone.cn;
        server_tokens off;                             # 安全加固选项
        location / {
        root /data/nginx/wordpress;
        index index.php index.html index.htm; 
        }
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }
        
        location  .php$ {
            root /data/nginx/wordpress;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;     # 安全加固选项
        }
        location  ^/(ping|pm_status)$ {
        include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_param PATH_TRANSLATED $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        }
    }
}
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# 


# 关闭 PHP版本暴露
[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# vim /etc/php.ini
; http://php.net/expose-php
;expose_php = On                # 默认值为ON  可以在客户端看到版本信息
expose_php = Off

file

6.3 配置 php 开启 opcache 加速

[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]# vim /etc/php.ini
.....................
[opcache]
; Determines if Zend OPCache is enabled
zend_extension=opcache.so 
opcache.enable=1
.......................

[root@lnp-server-ip47 wordpress]#systemctl restart php-fpm

本文转自:https://blog.51cto.com/shone/5165650

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